Corn Chamomile2017-08-04T21:23:56+00:00

Corn Chamomile

Anthemis arvensis L.

Keys to Identification

  • Has no odor
  • Small daisy-like flowers

This information courtesy of the Colorado Natural Areas Program.

Family

Asteraceae (Sunflower)

Other Names

Scentless chamomile, chamomile, mayweed.

USDA Code

ANAR6

Legal Status

Colorado Noxious Weed List B

Identification

Lifecycle

Annual

Growth form

Forb

Flower

Flowers are 3/4 in wide and are borne at the ends of branched stems. Flowers resemble daisies with white ray flowers and yellow disc flowers. Mid-May-Sept.

Seeds/Fruit

Seeds (achenes) are dark brown and grooved.

Leaves

Leaves are alternate and finely dissected.

Stems

Mature plants are 10-30 in tall. Stems are erect, smooth, and highly branched above.

Roots

Dense fibrous root system.

 

Similar Species

Exotics

Scentless chamomile (Matricaria perforata) is common on the western slope, and is sometimes confused with corn chamomile (Anthemis arvensis) or mayweed chamomile (Anthemis cotula). Corn chamomile is almost identical to mayweed chamomile but can be identified by its lack of odor.

Natives

The native Hymenopappus newberryi has few stem leaves, and is perennial.

Impacts

Agricultural

Corn chamomile can reduce crop production. It is considered unpalatable to livestock and its feed value is poor (Woo et al. 1991).

Habitat and Distribution

General requirements

Corn chamomile is commonly associated with newly disturbed habitats. It is found along roadsides, ditches, in urban areas, waste places, cultivated fields, and pastures. It can grow in a wide range of soils but seems to prefer moist, poorly drained soils. Corn chamomile prefers moist areas and increases in abundance during years of above average precipitation.

Distribution

Not yet widespread in Colorado.

Historical

Corn chamomile is a native of Europe that was introduced into North America as an ornamental or seed contaminant.

Biology/Ecology

Corn chamomile germinates readily in the spring and fall. It has a dense, fibrous root system, which spreads rapidly during wet periods. Late summer and fall-germinated seedlings may overwinter as rosettes. In the spring, bolting commences with the elongation of the central stem. Overwintering plants flower in mid-May and spring germinated seedlings flower in June. Flowering stops after a killing frost, usually in October.

Mode of reproduction

Corn chamomile germinates readily in the spring and fall. It has a dense, fibrous root system, which spreads rapidly during wet periods. Late summer and fall-germinated seedlings may overwinter as rosettes. In the spring, bolting commences with the elongation of the central stem. Overwintering plants flower in mid-May and spring germinated seedlings flower in June. Flowering stops after a killing frost, usually in October.

Seed production

Corn chamomile is a prolific seed producer and can produce up to 960,000 seeds per plant.

Seed bank

Seed may remain viable in the soil for 4-6 years.

References

Colorado Natural Areas Program. 2000. Creating an Integrated Weed Management Plan: A Handbook for Owners and Managers of Lands with Natural Values. Colorado Natural Areas Program, Colorado State Parks, Colorado Department of Natural Resources; and Division of Plant Industry, Colorado Department of Agriculture. Denver, Colorado. 349 pages.

USDA, NRCS. 2005. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). Data compiled from various sources by Mark W. Skinner. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA

Whitson, T.D.(ed.), L.C. Burrill, S.A. Dewey, D.W. Cudney, B.E. Nelson, R.D. Lee, R. Parker. 1996. Mayweed chamomile. Weeds of the West. Western Society of Weed Science, in cooperation with the Western United States Land Grant Universities Cooperative Extension Services, Newark CA. pg. 55.

Woo, S.L., A.G. Thomas, D.P. Peschken, G.G. Bowes, D.W. Douglas, V.L. Harms, and A.S. McClay. 1991. The biology of Canadian weeds. 99. Matricaria perforata Merat (Asteraceae). Canadian Journal of Plant Science 71: 1101-1119.

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